In our last article on Cyber Crime, we saw what cybercrime is and how one could take certain basic steps to prevent it from happening to you. Today we will go a bit more in detail and see the types of Cybercrime.
Types of Computer crime or Cybercrime
An attack to commit a Cyber Crime can be called a Cyber Attack! When it comes to the Internet, you are sure to acquire some malware, if you visit malicious websites without proper protection. At the minimum, you need an antivirus and a firewall. You also need to stay and steer clear of different types of cybercriminals trying to make money at your cost.
Let us have a look at the common types of cybercrime and how to deal with them.
It is important to note that a computer, Internet or computer technology has to be involved, and when the use of any of the following techniques or activities is made to carry out a crime or illegal activity – only then can it be classified as a Cybercrime. The list, of course, is not exhaustive – it is only indicative!
Identity theft and fraud are one of the most common types of cybercrime. The term Identity Theft is used, when a person purports to be some other person, with a view to creating a fraud for financial gains. When this is done online on the Internet, it is called Online Identity Theft. The most common source to steal the identity information of others are data breaches affecting government or federal websites. It can be data breaches of private websites too, that contain important information such as – credit card information, address, email IDs, etc.
Go here to learn how you can prevent Online Identity Thefts and protect yourself
This is one of the detestable malware-based attacks. Ransomware enters your computer network and encrypts your files using public-key encryption, and unlike other malware, this encryption key remains on the hacker’s server. Attacked users are then asked to pay huge ransom to receive this private key.
This post will lay down some ground rules that can help you prevent ransomware.
DDoS attacks are used to make an online service unavailable and bring it down, by bombarding or overwhelming it with traffic from multiple locations and sources. Large networks of infected computers, called Botnets are developed by planting malware on the victim computers. The idea is normally to draw attention to the DDOS attack and allow the hacker to hack into a system. Extortion and blackmail could be the other motivations.
This post talks about DDoS and protection & prevention methods.
Botnets are networks of compromised computers, controlled by remote attackers in order to perform such illicit tasks as sending spam or attacking other computers. Computer Bots can also be used to act like malware and carry out malicious tasks. Then can be used to assemble a network of computers and then compromise them.
There are some Botnet Removal Tools that can help you detect and remove Botnets.
Spam and Phishing
Spamming and phishing are two very common forms of cybercrimes. There is not much you can do to control them. Spam is basically unwanted emails and messages. They use Spambots. Phishing is a method where cybercriminals offer bait so that you take it and give out the information they want. The bait can be in the form of a business proposal, the announcement of a lottery to which you never subscribed, and anything that promises you money for nothing or a small favor. There are online loan companies too, making claims that you can get insecure loans irrespective of your location. Doing business with such claims, you are sure to suffer both financially and mentally. Phishing has its variants too – notably among them are Tabnabbing, Tabjacking. and Vishing and Smishing.
Such spamming and phishing attempts are mostly emails sent by random people whom you did not ever hear of. You should stay away from any such offers especially when you feel that the offer is too good. The US Cybercrime Center says – do not get into any kind of agreement that promises something too good to be true. In most cases, they are fake offers aiming to get your information and to get your money directly or indirectly.
Read our article to know what is Phishing and how to detect Phishing attempts.
Social engineering is a method where cybercriminals make direct contact with you using emails or phones – mostly the latter. They try to gain your confidence and once they succeed at it, they get the information they need. This information can be about you, your money, your company where you work, or anything that can be of interest to the cybercriminals.
It is easy to find out basic information about people from the Internet. Using this information as the base, the cybercriminals try to befriend you and once they succeed, they will disappear, leaving you prone to different financial injuries directly and indirectly. They can sell the information obtained by you or use it to secure things like loans in your name. The latter case is of Identity theft. You should be very careful when dealing with strangers – both on phone and on the Internet.
See our article on Social Engineering Techniques to know how to deal with it.
Malvertising is a method whereby users download malicious code by simply clicking on some advertisements on any website that is infected. In most cases, the websites are innocent. It is the cybercriminals who insert malicious advertisements on the websites without the knowledge of the latter. It is the work of advert companies to check out if an advertisement is malicious but given the number of advertisements they have to deal with, the malverts easily pass off as genuine ads.
In other cases, the cybercriminals show clean ads for a period of time and then replace them with malverts so that the websites and advertisements do not suspect. They display the malverts for a while and remove it from the site after meeting their targets. All this is so fast that the website does not even know they were used as a tool for cybercrime. Malvertising is one of the fastest, increasing types of cybercrime.
PUP or PUA
PUPs, commonly known as Potentially Unwanted Programs are less harmful but more annoying malware. It installs unwanted software in your system including search agents and toolbars. They include spyware, adware, as well as dialers. Bitcoin miner was one of the most commonly noticed PUPs at one point.
Drive-By Downloads too, come close to malvertising. You visit a website and it triggers a download of malicious code to your computer. These computers are then used to aggregate data and to manipulate other computers as well.
The websites may or may not know that they have been compromised. Mostly, the cyber criminals use vulnerable software such as Java and Adobe Flash and Microsoft Silverlight to inject malicious codes as soon as a browser visits the infected website. The user does not even know that there is a download in progress.
You might want to have a look at our article on Drive-By Downloads to learn how to protect yourself.
Remote Administration Tools
Remote Administration Tools are used to carry out illegal activities. It can be used to control the computer using shell commands, steal files/data, send the location of the computer to a remote controlling device and more.
Read this post to learn more about how you can prevent the illegal use of RATs or Remote Administration Tools.
A vulnerability means some problem in the coding of software that enables cyber criminals to gain control of your computer. There are ready-to-use tools (exploit kits) in the Internet market which people can buy and use it against you. These exploit kits are upgraded just like normal software. The only difference is these are illegal. They are available mostly in hacking forums as well as on the Darknet.
Read our article on Exploits and Exploit Kits to know more about them.
Notable among Internet scams are scams that misuse the Microsoft name and other general tech support scams. Scamsters phone computer users randomly and offer to fix their computers for a fee. Every single day, scores of innocent people are trapped by scam artists into Online Tech Support Scams and forced to shell out hundreds of dollars for non-existent computer problems.
Preventive steps against Cybercrime
Apart from inculcating safe browsing habits, maintain good system hygiene. Avoid leaving Digital Footprints. You must secure your Windows system with a fully updated operating system and installed software, and ensure that you install a good Internet security software to protect your Windows 10 computer.
Stay safe … it’s a bad world out there!