Devices connected to the Internet are called smart devices. Pretty much everything related to the Internet is known as a smart device. In this context, the code that makes the devices SMARTER – so that it can work with minimal or without any human intervention – can be said to be based on Artificial Intelligence (AI). The other two, namely: Machine Learning (ML), and Deep Learning (DL), are different types of algorithms built to bring more capabilities to the smart devices. Let’s see AI vs ML vs DL in detail below to understand what they do and how they are connected to AI.
What is Artificial Intelligence with respect to ML & DL
AI can be called a superset of Machine Learning (ML) processes, and Deep Learning (DL) processes. AI usually is an umbrella term that is used for ML and DL. Deep Learning is again, a subset of Machine Learning (see image above).
Some argue that Machine Learning is no more a part of the universal AI. They say ML is a complete science in its own right and thus, need not be called with reference to Artificial Intelligence. AI thrives on data: Big Data. The more data it consumes, the more accurate it is. It is not that it will always predict correctly. There will be false flags as well. The AI trains itself on these mistakes and becomes better at what it is supposed to do – with or without human supervision.
Artificial Intelligence cannot be defined properly as it has penetrated into almost all industries and affects way too many types of (business) processes and algorithms. We can say that Artificial Intelligence is based on Data Science (DS: Big Data) and contains Machine Learning as its distinct part. Likewise, Deep Learning is a distinct part of Machine Learning.
The way the IT market is tilting, the future would be dominated with connected smart devices, called the Internet of Things (IoT). Smart devices mean artificial intelligence: directly or indirectly. You are already using artificial intelligence (AI) in many tasks in your daily life. For example, typing on a smartphone keyboard that keeps on getting better on “words suggestion”. Among other examples where you unknowingly are dealing with Artificial Intelligence are searching for things on the Internet, online shopping, and of course, the ever-smart Gmail and Outlook email inboxes.
What is Machine Learning
Machine Learning is a field of Artificial Intelligence where the aim is to make a machine (or computer, or a software) learn and train itself without much programming. Such devices need less programming as they apply human methods to complete tasks, including learning how to perform better. Basically, ML means programming a computer/device/software a bit and allowing it to learn on its own.
There are several methods to facilitate Machine Learning. Of them, the following three are used extensively:
- Unsupervised, and
- Reinforcement learning.
Supervised Learning in Machine Learning
Supervised in a sense that programmers first provide the machine with labeled data and already processed answers. Here, labels mean the row or column names in a database or spreadsheet. After feeding huge sets of such data to the computer, it is ready to analyze further data sets and provide results on its own. That means you taught the computer how to analyze the data fed to it.
Usually, it is confirmed using the 80/20 rule. Huge sets of data are fed to a computer that tries and learns the logic behind the answers. 80 percent of data from an event is fed to the computer along with answers. The remaining 20 percent is fed without answers to see if the computer can come up with proper results. This 20 percent is used for cross-checking to see how the computer (machine) is learning.
Unsupervised Machine Learning
Unsupervised Learning happens when the machine is fed with random data sets that are not labeled, and not in order. The machine has to figure out how to produce the results. For example, if you offer it softballs of different colors, it should be able to categorize by colors. Thus, in the future, when the machine is presented with a new softball, it can identify the ball with already present labels in its database. There is no training data in this method. The machine has to learn on its own.
Machines that can make a sequence of decisions fall into this category. Then there is a reward system. If the machine does good at whatever the programmer wants, it gets a reward. The machine is programmed in a way that it craves maximum rewards. And to get it, it solves problems by devising different algorithms in different cases. That means the AI computer uses trial and error methods to come up with results.
For example, if the machine is a self-driving vehicle, it has to create its own scenarios on road. There is no way a programmer can program every step as he or she can’t think of all the possibilities when the machine is on the road. That is where Reinforcement Learning comes in. You can also call it trial and error AI.
How is Deep Learning different from Machine Learning
Deep Learning is for more complicated tasks. Deep Learning is a subset of Machine Learning. Only that it contains more neural networks that help the machine in learning. Manmade neural networks are not new. Labs across the world are trying to build and improve neural networks so that the machines can make informed decisions. You must have heard of Sophia, a humanoid in Saudi that was provided regular citizenship. Neural networks are like human brains but not as sophisticated as the brain.
There are some good networks that provide for unsupervised deep learning. You can say that Deep Learning is more neural networks that imitate the human brain. Still, with enough sample data, the Deep Learning algorithms can be used to pick up details from sample data. For example, with an image processor DL machine, it is easier to create human faces with emotions changing according to the questions the machine is asked.
The above explains AI vs MI vs DL in easier language. AI and ML are vast fields – that are just opening up and have tremendous potential. This is the reason some people are against using Machine Learning and Deep Learning in Artificial Intelligence.